An enormous engine that consumes over 14 percent of the U.S. gross domestic product (GDP), the health care industry ranges from pharmaceutical and biotechnological companies on the cutting edge of research to family physicians in offices scattered throughout our communities. A recent study showed that the health care industry, in addition to its obvious importance to individual and public health, is crucial to metropolitan economies (DeVol et al. 2003). This study places Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Chicago, and Los Angeles as metropolitan leaders in the health care economy because of the range and depth of their activities.

Coauthored with Raphael W. Bostic and LaVonna B. Lewis.