Scientific Paragon to Hospital Mall: The Evolution of the Hospital, 1885-1994 (1994)

Abstract Since 1885, the hospital has evolved from a public charity to a scientific paragon. A growing chorus of criticism, though, attacks its impersonality and inhospitality, especially in the emerging competitive health market which emphasizes ambulatory care. Hospital administrators have responded by asking designers to re-create the hospital into a more welcoming and accessible place. [...]

History of Children’s Hospitals

Children’s hospitals emerged in the 19th Century and expanded dramatically in the early 20th Century as middle-class families began to use the hospital more. Women founded these specialized hospitals hoping to help poor mothers, and later themselves, get quality health care for their children. This article shows how as the institution evolved, women’s voices were [...]