This article examines the phenomena of invented and reinvented streets, each of which represents an attempt to present a new shopping experience to counter the growing threat of such non-traditional retail formats as mail-order, television, and internet shopping, and the in-home inertia those practices create.

Invented streets, such as CityWalk in Universal City and Two Rodeo Drive in Beverly Hills are products of design imagination, built with flair and aimed at breathing new life into urban areas where no shopping streets existed. Reinvented streets, such as Third Street Promenade (TSP) in Santa Monica, Fremont Street in Las Vegas, and the downtown Sacramento Mall, are the latest of several face-lifts and refurbishments, each responding to a declining market and targeted at serving a shifting population.

Coauthored with Tridib Banerjee, Genevieve Giuliano, and Greg Hise

Lusk Review: Journal of Real Estate and Urban Transformation 2.1 (1996): 18-27